Content Modification


Content Modification

If a student has difficulty in the following areas, then try this.

Becoming interested

  • tell stories which relate-to peoples' lives
  • establish relevancy
  • provide concrete experiences
  • read aloud story or article to stimulate interest
  • seat student close to teacher

Getting started - give cue to begin work

  • give work in smaller amounts
  • provide immediate feedback
  • sequence work
  • provide time suggestions
  • check on progress
  • peer or peer tutor

Paying attention to spoken word

  • give explanations in small distinct steps
  • provide written backup to oral directions
  • have student repeat directions -use buddies, tape recorder -shorten the listening time
  • alternate spoken with written manipulative tasks
  • look directly at student; place hand on student's shoulder (younger student)

*Following directions *Keeping track of materials or assignments -Paying attention to printed word

Following directions

  • use fewer words
  • provide examples
  • repeat
  • have student repeat
  • provide checklist
  • use auditory and visual directions

Keeping track of materials or assignments

  • use notebook
  • use large envelope for each subject
  • keep extra supplies on hand
  • provide assignment sheets to resource teacher and parents
  • have student carry a mailbag
  • write assignment on board
  • give rewards for bringing supplies

Paying attention to printed word

  • select a text
  • highlight
  • underline, number
  • keep desk clear of extras
  • face desk to wall or use carrel
  • overhead transparency

*Reading textbooks *Completing tasks on time *Expressing him/herself verbally

Reading textbooks

  • use lower level or adapted text- if available
  • tape text
  • shorten amount of required reading
  • have students read aloud in small groups
  • allow extra time for reading
  • omit reading requirements
  • put main idea on index cards
  • oral tests
  • use a buddy or allow group work
  • pre-teach vocabulary
  • give take home tests
  • use larger type

Completing tasks on time

  • reduce amount to be accomplished
  • allow more time
  • write schedules
  • provide checklists
  • provide closure at points along the way

Expressing him/herself verbally

  • accept alternate form of information:
  • written report
  • art work
  • exhibit
  • chart/graph
  • bulletin board
  • Photos
  • ask questions requiring short answers
  • provide prompts
  • give rules for class discussion
  • teach student to ask questions in class
  • question at the teaching level
  • break him/her in gradually "by speaking" in smaller groups
  • allow taped reports

*Staying on task * Learning by listening * Working in groups * Working independently

Staying on task

  • reduce distraction
  • increase reinforcements
  • provide checklist
  • reduce amount of work
  • give time out
  • provide quiet alternatives for a short time
  • use a timer to set short periods of work

Learning by listening

  • provide visuals
  • use flash cards
  • have student close his eyes and
  • visualize the information
  • spell by visualizing the whole word
  • teach use of acronyms
  • give explanations in small distinct steps
  • remove extra words
  • provide study guide
  • Working in groups -provide a partner
  • provide a student with a responsibility or position of leadership
  • provide more structure by defining tasks and listing steps

Working independently

  • assign task at appropriate level
  • be certain the student can see an end to the task
  • give precise direction.
  • reinforce often
  • provide a variety of types of work within the assignment

-Understanding what is read -Write legibly *Spelling *Understanding cause/effect/anticipating consequences:

  • Understanding what is read -reduce the language level
  • become more concrete
  • reduce amount of new ideas
  • provide experiences for a frame of reference
  • provide study guide
  • give organizational help
  • provide alternate media
  • remove extra words, Jane please sit, not Jane would you please sit in your chair
  • use fill in the blank technique

Write legibly

  • use formats low on writing:
    • multiple choice
    • fill in
    • programmed
  • use manipulatives
  • have student type
  • allow use of tape recorder
  • use graph paper
  • save papers for two weeks and then have student read what they wrote
  • teach writing directly


  • dictate word, ask student to repeat it
  • avoid traditional spelling lists
  • teach short easy words in context: ..on and on..right on! ..on account of
  • have students make flash cards
  • teach words by spelling patterns
  • avoid penalizing for spelling errors
  • hang words from ceiling during study time or post on board or walls for constant visual cues
  • provide a tactile aid to spelling (letter of sandpaper, saltbox, etc.)

Understanding cause/effect: anticipating consequences

  • use concrete examples
  • use real life situations
  • teach cause/effect directly..brainstorming..role playing..Simulation
  • have students use their imaginations

Seeing relationships -Expressing him/herself in writing - Drawing conclusions and making inferences - remembering-

seeing relationships

  • directly point out relationships
  • draw arrows on worksheets or test to show that ideas are related
  • class discussion
  • teach directly, relations of: ..function..category..opposition..Sequence
  • provide direct practice
  • provide headings or a partially filled in chart for an example
  • use a banner with symbols for ideas/events

Expressing him/herself in writing

  • accept alternate forms of reporting:..oral report..tape recorded report..tape an interview..maps..photographic essay..Panel discussion
  • have student dictate work to someone else
  • have student prepare only notes or outline on subject
  • shorten amount required
  • Provide practice with--story starters--Open-ended stories

Drawing conclusions and making inferences

  • teach thinking skills directly
  • draw a parallel to a situation that the student might have experienced in problem solving


  • provide a checklist
  • provide cues
  • have students make notes to self
  • teach memory skills
  • teach use of acronyms and other mnemonic devices


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